What is .htaccess?
Important Note: Do not edit the .htaccess file if you are using MS Frontpage! Frontpage uses the .htaccess file, and editing it may cause errors in your configuration.
The .htaccess file can be placed in one or more of your /home/$user/$domain-
When a request for a web page is made, the web server first checks for an .htaccess file. The server begins this check by looking for .htaccess in the root of the current web directory, and on down the directory tree until it reaches the directory where the requested file resides. Since the placement of the .htaccess file determines when it is executed, this fact can be used to restrict access only in certain subdirectories.
To create an .htaccess file, make a text file as described below, name it .htaccess and upload it.
Except for the first feature, described below, the following features will only work
for a .htaccess file placed in /home/$user/$domain-
The directory you want protected must have a .htaccess file in it that looks like the following (do not put the comments in the actual .htaccess file [comments begin with #]):
AuthName "Protected Space"
require group $users #users, is the group of users that you give access to
#require user $user #if there is only one user in the group, you can substitute this line; remove the #.
(Other possible groups are administrators, etc)
Groups and users are stored in the .group file, and passwords are stored in .passwd. The .htaccess file looks for these files in the /home/$user directory. Do not attempt to edit these manually!
Redirecting allows you to send the user to, for example, new.html when they attempt to access old.html. To see this example in practice, simply add the following line to the .htaccess file:
Redirect /$directory/old.html http://$domain.com/$directory/new.html
There are two main styles of error messages you may encounter. The first is the standard form, which looks something like:
File Not found
The requested URL http://$domain.com/file.html was not found on this server.
The second type comes in a variety of forms, and is customized by the webmaster. For example:
We're sorry, but the requested URL does not exist. Please e-
Such messages are called error documents, and are web pages designed to give a polite explanation for error conditions. These error conditions generate numbers which are used to refer to the appropriate error condition. Some of the most common messages are as follows:
How to Customize Error Messages for Your Site:
First, create the HTML page you want to use as your error message.
Second, upload it to your web directory [/home/$user/$domain-
Third, go into your .htaccess file (or create one) and add lines which specify the substitution.
Here are three examples of specifying error documents which will be called for a given error condition (note you can use relative or absolute addressing):
You can add mime types to your .htaccess file with a line like:
AddType text/html .txt
Username and Password Restrictions
Usernames and passwords should be 5-
You will be grateful you chose a short password when you have to type it 20 times without seeing it.
Conversely, a one-
Passwords are case-
Do not use punctuation, for example Cr13:1-
Punctuation is particularly bad when you are initializing software and do not know whether some of its component tools do or do not accept punctuation. For example, UNIX accepts some punctuation but mySQL does not. The troubleshooting can be painful.
So, to save headaches later, use only alpha-
.htaccess and FrontPage
If you're running FrontPage, you cannot custom-
[Having said this, please note that a .htaccess file may be used in any directory within the web space that is not owned by the user; for example, a directory owned by root]
Additional Resources for .htaccess: